A History of Greek Art

A History of Greek Art

A HISTORY OF GREEK ART F. B. TARBELL PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PREFACE. The art of any artistically gifted people may be studied with various purposes and in various ways. One man being himself an artist may seek inspiration or guidance for his own practice; another being a student of the history of civilization may strive to comprehend the products of art as one manifestation of a people's spiritual life; another may be interested chiefly in tracing the development of artistic processes forms and subjects; and so on. But this book has been written in the conviction that the greatest of all motives for studying art the motive which is and ought to be strongest in most people is the desire to become acquainted with beautiful and noble things the things that "soothe the cares and lift the thoughts of man." The historical method of treatment has been adopted as a matter of course but the emphasis is not laid upon the historical aspects of the subject. The chief aim has been to present characteristic specimens of the finest Greek work that has been preserved to us and to suggest how they may be intelligently enjoyed. Fortunate they who can carry their studies farther with the help of less elementary handbooks of photographs of casts or best of all of the original monuments. Most of the illustrations in this book have been made from photographs of which all but a few belong to the collection of Greek photographs owned by the University of Chicago. A number of other illustrations have been derived from books or serial publications as may be seen from the accompanying legends. In several cases where cuts were actually taken from secondary sources such as Baumeister's "Denkmaler des klassischen Altertums" they have been credited to their original sources. A few architectural drawings were made expressly for this work being adapted from trustworthy authorities viz.: Figs. 6 51 61 and 64. There remain two or three additional illustrations which have so long formed a part of the ordinary stock-in trade of handbooks that it seemed unnecessary to assign their origin. The introductory chapter has been kindly looked over by Dr. J. H. Breasted who has relieved it of a number of errors without in any way making himself responsible for it. The remaining chapters have unfortunately not had the benefit of any such revision. In the present reissue of this book a number of slight changes and corrections have been introduced. Chicago January 1905. CONTENTS. I. ART IN EGYPT AND MESOPOTAMIA II. PREHISTORIC ART IN GREECE III. GREEK ARCHITECTURE IV. GREEK SCULPTURE--GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS V. THE ARCHAIC PERIOD OF GREEK SCULPTURE FIRST HALF: 625 (?)-550 B.C. VI. THE ARCHAIC PERIOD OF GREEK SCULPTURE. SECOND HALF: 550-480 B. C. VII. THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD OF GREEK SCULPTURE. 480-4506. C. VIII. THE GREAT AGE OF GREEK SCULPTURE. FIRST PERIOD: 450-400 B. C. IX. THE GREAT AGE OF GREEK SCULPTURE. SECOND PERIOD: 400-323 B. C. X. THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD OF GREEK SCULPTURE. 323-146 B. C. XI. GREEK PAINTING A HISTORY OF GREEK ART. CHAPTER I. ART IN EGYPT AND MESOPOTAMIA. The history of Egypt from the time of the earliest extant monuments to the absorption of the country in the Roman Empire covers a space of some thousands of years. This long period was not one of stagnation. It is only in proportion to our ignorance that life in ancient Egypt seems to have been on one dull dead level. Dynasties rose and fell. Foreign invaders occupied the land and were expelled again. Customs costumes beliefs institutions underwent changes. Of course then art did not remain stationary. On the contrary it had marked vicissitudes now displaying great freshness and vigor now uninspired and monotonous now seemingly dead and now reviving to new activity. In Babylonia we deal with perhaps even remoter periods of time but the artistic remains at present known from that quarter are comparatively scanty. From Assyria however the daughter of Babylonia materials abound and the history of that country can be written in detail for a period of several centuries. Naturally then even a mere sketch of Egyptian Babylonian and Assyrian art would require much more space than is here at disposal. All that can be attempted is to present a few examples and suggest a few general notions. The main purpose will be to make clearer by comparison and contrast the essential qualities of Greek art to which this volume is devoted. I begin with Egypt and offer at the outset a table of the most important periods of Egyptian history. The dates are taken from the sketch prefixed to the catalogue of Egyptian antiquities in the Berlin Museum. In using them the reader must bear in mind that the earlier Egyptian chronology is highly uncertain. Thus the date here suggested for the Old Empire while it cannot be too early may be a thousand years too late. As we come down the margin of possible error grows less and less. The figures assigned to the New Empire are regarded as trustworthy within a century or two. But only when we reach the Saite dynasty do we get a really precise chronology. Chief Periods of Egyptian History: OLD EMPIRE with capital at Memphis; Dynasties 4-5 (2800-2500 B. C. or earlier) and Dynasty 6. MIDDLE EMPIRE with capital at Thebes; Dynasties 11-13 (2200-1800 ...