A General History for Colleges and High Schools

A General History for Colleges and High Schools

A GENERAL HISTORY FOR COLLEGES AND HIGH SCHOOLS P. V. N. MYERS [Illustration: VIEW OF THE ATTIC PLAINS WITH A GLIMPSE OF THE ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS.--Frontispiece.] PREFACE. This volume is based upon my _Ancient History_ and _Mediaeval and Modern History_. In some instances I have changed the perspective and the proportions of the narrative; but in the main the book is constructed upon the same lines as those drawn for the earlier works. In dealing with so wide a range of facts and tracing so many historic movements I cannot hope that I have always avoided falling into error. I have however taken the greatest care to verify statements of fact and to give the latest results of discovery and criticism. Considering the very general character of the present work an enumeration of the books that have contributed facts to my narration or have helped to mould my views on this or that subject would hardly be looked for; yet I wish here to acknowledge my special indebtedness in the earlier parts of the history to the works of George Rawlinson Sayce Wilkinson Brugsch Grote Curtius Mommsen Merivale and Leighton; and in the later parts and on special periods to the writings of Hodgkin Emerton Ranke Freeman Michaud Bryce Symonds Green (J. R.) Motley Hallam Thiers Lecky Baird and Mueller. Several of the colored maps with which the book will be found liberally provided were engraved especially for my _Ancient History_; but the larger number are authorized reproductions of charts accompanying Professor Freeman's _Historical Geography of Europe_. The Roman maps were prepared for Professor William F. Allen's _History of Rome_ which is to be issued soon and it is to his courtesy that I am indebted for their use. The illustrations have been carefully selected with reference to their authenticity and historical truthfulness. Many of those in the Oriental and Greek part of the work are taken from Oscar Jaeger's _Weltgeschichte_; while most of those in the Roman portion are from Professor Allen's forthcoming work on Rome to which I have just referred the author having most generously granted me the privilege of using them in my work notwithstanding it is to appear in advance of his. Further acknowledgments of indebtedness are also due from me to many friends who have aided me with their scholarly suggestions and criticism. My warmest thanks are particularly due to Professor W.F. Allen of the University of Wisconsin; to Dr. E.W. Coy Principal of Hughes High School Cincinnati; to Professor William A. Merrill of Miami University; and to Mr. D. H. Montgomery author of _The Leading Facts of History_ series. P. V. N. M. COLLEGE HILL OHIO July 1889. TABLE OF CONTENTS. PREFACE LIST OF MAPS GENERAL INTRODUCTION: THE RACES AND THEIR EARLY MIGRATIONS PART I. ANCIENT HISTORY. SECTION I.--THE EASTERN NATIONS. CHAPTER I. India and China. 1. India. 2. China. II. Egypt. 1. Political History. 2. Religion Arts and General Culture. III. Chaldaea. 1. Political History. 2. Arts and General Culture. IV. Assyria. 1. Political History. 2. Religion Arts and General Culture. V. Babylonia. VI. The Hebrews. VII. The Phoenicians. VIII. The Persian Empire. 1. Political History. 2. Government Religion and Arts. SECTION II.--GRECIAN HISTORY. IX. The Land and the People. X. The Legendary or Heroic Age. XI. Religion of the Greeks. XII. Age of the Tyrants and of Colonization: the Early Growth of Sparta and of Athens. 1. Age of the Tyrants and of Colonization. 2. The Growth of Sparta. 3. The Growth of Athens. XIII. The Graeco-Persian Wars. XIV. Period of Athenian Supremacy. XV. The Peloponnesian War: the Spartan and the Theban Supremacy. 1. The Peloponnesian War. 2. The Spartan and the Theban Supremacy. XVI. Period of Macedonian Supremacy: Empire of Alexander. XVII. States formed from the Empire of Alexander. XVIII. Greek Architecture Sculpture and Painting. 1. Architecture. 2. Sculpture and Painting. XIX. Greek Literature. 1. Epic and Lyric Poetry. 2. The Drama and Dramatists. 3. History and Historians. 4. Oratory. XX. Greek Philosophy and Science. XXI. Social Life of the Greeks. SECTION III.--ROMAN HISTORY. XXII. The Roman Kingdom. XXIII. The Early Roman Republic: Conquest of Italy. XXIV. The First Punic War. XXV. The Second Punic War. XXVI. The Third Punic War. XXVII. The Last Century of the Roman Republic. XXVIII. The Last Century of the Roman Republic (_concluded_). XXIX. The Roman Empire (from 31 B.C. to A.D. 180). XXX. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire in the West (A.D. 180-476). XXXI. Roman Civilization. 1. Architecture. 2. Literature Philosophy and Law. 3. Social Life. PART II. MEDIAEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. INTRODUCTION. SECTION I.--MEDIAEVAL HISTORY. FIRST PERIOD.--THE DARK AGES. (From the Fall of Rome A.D. 476 to the Eleventh Century.) XXXII. Migrations and Settlements of the Teutonic Tribes. XXXIII. The Conversion of the Barbarians. XXXIV. Fusion of the Latin and Teutonic Peoples. XXXV. The Roman Empire in the East. XXXVI. Mohammed and the Saracens. XXXVII. Charlemagne and the Restoration of the Empire in the West. XXXVIII. The Northmen. XXXIX. Rise of the Papal Power. SECOND PERIOD.--THE AGE OF REVIVAL. (From the opening of the Eleventh Century to the Discovery of America by Columbus in 1492.) XL. Feudalism and Chivalry. 1. Feudalism. 2. Chivalry. XLI. The Norman Conquest of England. XLII. The Crusades. 1. Introductory: Causes of the Crusades. 2. The First Crusade. 3. The Second Crusade. 4. The Third Crusade. 5. The Fourth Crusade. 6. Close of the Crusades: Their Results. XLIII. Supremacy of the Papacy: Decline of its Temporal Power. XLIV. Conquests of the Turanian Tribes. XLV. Growth of the Towns: The Italian City-Republics. XLVI. The Revival of Learning. XLVII. Growth of the Nations: Formation of National Governments and Literatures. 1. England. 2. France. 3. Spain. 4. Germany. 5. Russia. 6. Italy. 7. The Northern Countries. SECTION II. MODERN HISTORY. INTRODUCTION THIRD PERIOD.--THE ERA OF THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION. (From the Discovery of America to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.) XLVIII. The Beginnings of the Reformation under Luther. XLIX. The Ascendency of Spain. 1. Reign of the Emperor Charles V. 2. Spain under Philip II. L. The Tudors and the English Reformation. 1. Introductory. 2. The Reign of Henry VII. 3. England severed from the Papacy by Henry VIII. 4. Changes in the Creed and Ritual under Edward VI. 5. Reaction under Mary. 6. Final Establishment of Protestantism under Elizabeth. LI. The Revolt of the Netherlands: Rise of the Dutch Republic. LII. The Huguenot Wars in France. LIII. The Thirty Years' War. FOURTH PERIOD.--THE ERA OF THE POLITICAL REVOLUTION. (From the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 to the present time.) LIV. The Ascendency of France under the Absolute Government of Louis XIV. LV. England under the Stuarts: The English Revolution. 1. The First Two Stuarts. 2. The Commonwealth. 3. The Restored Stuarts. 4. The Orange-Stuarts. 5. England under the Earlier Hanoverians. LVI. The Rise of Russia: Peter the Great. LVII. The Rise of Prussia: Frederick the Great. LVIII. The French Revolution. 1. Causes of the Revolution: The States-General of 1789. 2. The National or Constituent Assembly. 3. The Legislative Assembly. 4. The National Convention. 5. The Directory. LIX. The Consulate and the First Empire: France since the Second Restoration. 1. The Consulate and the Empire. 2. France since the Second Restoration. LX. Russia since the Congress of Vienna. LXI. German Freedom and Unity. LXII. Liberation and Unification of Italy. LXIII. England since the Congress of Vienna. 1. Progress towards Democracy. 2. Expansion of the Principle of Religious Equality. 3. Growth of the British Empire in the East. CONCLUSION: THE NEW AGE. INDEX PRONOUNCING VOCABULARY AND GLOSSARY LIST OF COLORED MAPS. 1. Ancient Egypt 2. The Tigris and the Euphrates 3. Lydia Media and Babylonia c. B.C. 550 4. Greece and the Greek Colonies 5. Greece in the 5th Century B.C. 6. Dominions and Dependencies of Alexander c. B.C. 323 7. Kingdoms of the Successors of Alexander c. B.C. 300 8. Italy before the Growth of the Roman Power 9. Mediterranean Lands at the Beginning of Second Punic War 10. Roman Dominions at the End of the Mithridatic War B.C. 64 11. The Roman Empire under Trajan A.D. 117 12. Roman Empire divided into Prefectures 13. Europe in the Reign of Theodoric c. A.D. 500 14. Europe in the Time of Charles the Great 814 15. The Western Empire as divided at Verdun 843 16. Spanish Kingdoms 1360 17. Central Europe 1360 18. The Spanish Kingdoms and their European Dependencies under Charles V 19. Europe in the 16th and 17th Centuries 20. The Baltic Lands c. 1701 21. Central Europe 1801 22. Sketch Map of Europe showing Principal Battles of Napoleon [Footnote: For the use of this map I am indebted to the courtesy of Mr. D. H. Montgomery author of "Leading Facts of French History."] 23. Central Europe 1810 24. Central Europe 1815 25. South-Eastern Europe according to the Treaty of Berlin 1878 26. Europe in 1880 GENERAL HISTORY. GENERAL INTRODUCTION: THE RACES AND THEIR EARLY MIGRATIONS. DIVISIONS OF HISTORY.--History is usually divided into three periods-- Ancient Mediaeval and Modern. Ancient History begins with the earliest nations of which we can gain any certain knowledge and extends to the fall of the Roman Empire in the West A.D. 476. Mediaeval History embraces the period about one thousand years in length lying between the fall of Rome and the discovery of the New World by Columbus A.D. 1492. Modern History commences with the close of the mediaeval period and extends to the present time. [Footnote: It is thought preferable by some scholars to let the beginning of the great Teutonic migration (A.D. 375) mark the end of the period of ancient history. Some also prefer to date the beginning of the modern period from the capture of Constantinople by the Turks A.D. 1453; while still others speak of it in a general way as commencing about the close of the 15th century at which time there were many inventions and discoveries and a great stir in the intellectual world.] ANTIQUITY OF MAN.--We do not know when man first came into possession of the earth. We only know that in ages vastly remote when both the climate and the outline of Europe were very different from what they are at present man lived on that continent with animals now extinct; and that as early as 4000 or 3000 B.C.--when the curtain first rises on the stage of history--in some favored regions as in the Valley of the Nile there were nations and civilizations already venerable with age and possessing languages arts and institutions that bear evidence of slow growth through very long periods of time before written history begins. [Footnote: The investigation and study of this vast background of human life is left to such sciences as _Ethnology Comparative Philology_ and _Prehistoric Archeology_.] THE RACES OF MANKIND.--Distinctions in form color and physiognomy divide the human species into three chief types or races known as the Black (Ethiopian or Negro) the Yellow (Turanian or Mongolian) and the White (Caucasian). But we must not suppose each of these three types to be sharply marked off from the others; they shade into one another by insensible gradations. There has been no perceptible change in the great types during historic times. The paintings upon the oldest Egyptian monuments show us that at the dawn of history about five or six thousand years ago the principal races were as distinctly marked as now each bearing its racial badge of color and physiognomy. As early as the times of Jeremiah the permanency of physical characteristics had passed into the proverb "Can the Ethiopian change his skin?" Of all the races the White or Caucasian exhibits by far the most perfect type physically intellectually and morally. [Illustration: NEGRO CAPTIVES From the Monuments of Thebes. (Illustrating the permanence of race characteristics.)] THE BLACK RACE.--Africa is the home of the peoples of the Black Race but we find them on all the other continents whither they have been carried as slaves by the stronger races; for since time immemorial they have been "hewers of wood and drawers of water" for their more favored brethren. THE YELLOW OR TURANIAN RACE.--The term Turanian is very loosely applied by the historian to many and widely separated families and peoples. In its broadest application it is made to include the Chinese and other more or less closely allied peoples of Eastern Asia; the Ottoman Turks the Hungarians the Finns the Lapps and the Basques in Europe; and (by some) the Esquimaux and American Indians. The peoples of this race were it seems the first inhabitants of Europe and of the New World; but in these quarters they have in the main either been exterminated or absorbed by later comers of the White Race. In Europe however two small areas of this primitive population escaped the common fate--the Basques sheltered among the Pyrenees and the Finns and Lapps in the far north; [Footnote: The Hungarians and Turks are Turanian peoples that have thrust themselves into Europe during historic times] while in the New World the Esquimaux and the Indians still represent the race that once held undisputed possession of the land. The polished stone implements found in the caves and river-gravels of Western Europe the shell-mounds or kitchen-middens upon the shores of the Baltic the Swiss lake habitations and the barrows or grave-mounds found in all parts of Europe are supposed to be relics of a prehistoric Turanian people. Although some of the Turanian peoples as for instance the Chinese have made considerable advance in civilization still as a rule the peoples of this race have made but little progress in the arts or in general culture. Even their languages have remained undeveloped. These seem immature or stunted in their growth. They have no declensions or conjugations like those of the languages of the Caucasian peoples. THE WHITE RACE AND ITS THREE FAMILIES.--The White Race embraces the historic nations. This type divides into three families--the Hamitic the Semitic and the Aryan or Indo-European (formerly called the Japhetic). The ancient Egyptians were the chief people of the Hamitic branch. In the gray dawn of history we discover them already settled in the Valley of the Nile and there erecting great monuments so faultless in construction as to render it certain that those who planned them had had a very long previous training in the art of building. The Semitic family includes among its chief peoples the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians the Hebrews the Phoenicians and the Arabians. We are not certain what region was the original abode of this family. We only know that by the dawn of history its various clans and tribes whencesoever they may have come had distributed themselves over the greater part of Southwestern Asia. It is interesting to note that the three great historic religions of the world--the Hebrew the Christian and the Mohammedan--the three religions that alone (if we except that of Zoroaster) teach a belief in one God arose among peoples belonging to the Semitic family. The Aryan or Indo-European though probably the youngest is the most widely scattered family of the White Race. It includes among its members the ancient Hindus Medes and Persians the classic Greeks and Romans and the modern descendants of all these nations; also almost all the peoples of Europe and their colonists that have peopled the New World and taken possession of other parts of the earth. MIGRATIONS OF THE ARYANS.--The original seat of the Aryan peoples was it is conjectured [Footnote: Some scholars seek the primitive home in Europe] somewhere in Asia. At a period that cannot be placed later than 3000 B.C. the Aryan household began to break up and scatter and the different clans to set out in search of new dwelling-places. Some tribes of the family spread themselves over the table-lands of Iran and the plains of India and became the progenitors of the Medes the Persians and the Hindus. Other clans entering Europe probably by the way of the Hellespont pushed themselves into the peninsulas of Greece and Italy and founded the Greek and Italian states. Still other tribes seem to have poured in successive waves into Central Europe. The vanguard of these peoples are known as the Celts. After them came the Teutonic tribes who crowded the former out on the westernmost edge of Europe--into Gaul and Spain and out upon the British Isles. These hard-pressed Celts are represented to-day by the Welsh the Irish and the Highland Scots. Behind the Teutonic peoples were the Slavonic folk who pushed the former hard against the Celts and when they could urge them no farther to the west finally settled down and became the ancestors of the Russians and other kindred nations. Although these migratory movements of the various clans and tribes of this wonderful Aryan family began in the early morning of history some five thousand or more years ago still we must not think of them as something past and unrelated to the present. These movements begun in those remote times are still going on. The overflow of the population of Europe into the different regions of the New World is simply a continuation of the prehistoric migrations of the members of the primitive Aryan household. Everywhere the other races and families have given way before the advance of the Aryan peoples who have assumed the position of leaders and teachers among the families of mankind and are rapidly spreading their arts and sciences and culture over the earth. EARLY CULTURE OF THE ARYANS.--One of the most fascinating studies of recent growth is that which reveals to us the customs beliefs and mode of life of the early Aryans while they were yet living together as a single household. Upon comparing the myths legends and ballads of the different Aryan peoples we discover the curious fact that under various disguises they are the same. Thus our nursery tales are found to be identical with those with which the Hindu children are amused. But the discovery should not surprise us. We and the Hindus are kinsmen children of the same home; so now when after a long separation we meet the tales we tell are the same for they are the stories that were told around the ...